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The Virginia Tech Undergraduate Historical Review welcomes submissions from all current or recently-graduated undergraduate students at four-year colleges and universities. Submitted manuscripts must adhere to the following guidelines:
Types of Articles
The VTUHR publishes works of original historical research and historiographical works.
All research articles must be based on original historical research conducted from a comprehensive base of appropriate primary sources and must feature a clear thesis that is integrated throughout the paper. They should also include a fairly extensive historiography section which demonstrates the paper’s unique contribution to the historical conversation.
All historiographical articles should contain a thesis statement that makes an original historiographical argument. This thesis should answer questions about how historians have approached similar topics over time; it should not make a historical argument. For example, an article which uses previous works of historical research to make an argument about the causes of the Civil War would not meet the criteria for the historiography section, but an article that uses previous works of historical research to make an argument about how historians’ views of Civil War causation have changed over time would meet the criteria.
Manuscripts must be submitted via e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org attached as a Microsoft Word document. Submissions must be between 12 and 30 pages of manuscript text. All papers should be written in 12-point Times New Roman font with page margins set to one inch. We accept submissions on a rolling basis, and you may submit a manuscript at any time.
Papers must utilize The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) format and include accurate and complete footnotes (not endnotes) and a full bibliography in the Notes-Bibliography style. The following guide is not exhaustive. It is intended to serve as a general guide to the Chicago style and to note specific VTUHR policies. When in doubt, feel free to contact the managing editors at email@example.com for further information.
Use italics at add emphasis to important words or phrases. This effect should be used sparingly and be used consistently throughout the paper.
Any use of added emphasis in direct quotations should be noted in the text or footnote.
Spelling and Transliteration
All papers should use standard American spelling.
No contractions should be used.
For foreign words, titles, and names, use a consistent system of transliteration. For foreign names of living individuals, use the transliteration accepted by them. Transliterations of foreign words, titles, or names that have widespread usage in the English-speaking world may be substituted for official transliterations.
Spell out numbers one through ninety-nine as well as round numbers in the hundreds, thousands, and so on that begin with one through ninety-nine.
Spell out numbered centuries; don’t use numerals.
Use international style for dates (i.e., day, month, year).
Technical Language, Acronyms, Terms Originating in a Language Other than English, and Archaic Language
The VTUHR is intended for a broad audience of historians. When using terms specific to particular subgenres and sub-disciplines within history, consider giving a brief, concise definition of technical terms, either in the text or in a content footnote the first time the term is used.
For organizational acronyms, use the full title of the organization, followed by the acronym in parenthesis, the first time the organization is mentioned.
For titles, words, or phrases originating in a foreign language, consider giving a brief, concise translation, either in the text or in a content footnote the first time the term is used.
When using historical titles, terms, or phrases that are no longer in common use, consider giving a concise definition in the text or in a content footnote.
All direct quotes must include a footnote referencing the quote’s source.
All quotes should be set up in the prose preceding the quote, either by a reference to the source or by language which organically leads into the quoted material.
Any direct quote that is longer than five full lines of text should be blocked off using a one-inch indentation. Quotation marks should not be used for block quotes.
Punctuation should always appear within the quotation marks, followed by the quotation mark and then followed by the footnote.
All direct quotes should appear exactly as they do in the referenced source, regardless of inaccuracies in grammar or spelling.
When adding words for clarity (for example, when adding a name or place to clarify the meaning of a pronoun), distinguish the added words using brackets. 
Material in the middle of a quote may be omitted to shorten the quote, but the author should be careful to ensure that the omission does not substantively change the meaning of the quote. To signify an omission, use an ellipse. Ellipses should be made up of three periods with a space before and after each. The ellipse should not hang across two lines. Include any punctuation occurring before the omission and then begin the ellipse.
Any words or ideas that are not original to the author should be cited with a footnote. This includes direct quotes, paraphrases, summaries of primary or secondary sources, statistics, and any ideas or arguments borrowed from primary or secondary sources. Footnotes should follow the notes format for The Chicago Manual of Style. The following comments on footnote style are not intended to be exhaustive, but to give the submitter a general idea of the requirements and information about specific VTUHR policies.
All footnotes should be created using the footnotes feature of your word processing software and should be compatible with Microsoft Word. Please note that most articles will require significant revisions and failure to adhere to this policy may result in incorrectly listed citations.
All source references should be as specific as possible. If a source has page numbers, each citation of that source should include the relevant page number.
No ibids. Use the full citation for the first instance of each source and then a shortened form for each subsequent reference to that source. Shortened citations should include the author’s last name, an abbreviated title (used consistently throughout the notes), and the specific page number being referenced.
Citations for websites should include a publication date, access date, and a url. Include as much information as possible. If no dates were included in the original writing of the paper, the VTUHR recommends that the submitter double-check their web sources to ensure that the source’s content still reflects its use within the article. The submitter is welcome to use this check to establish an access date. The VTUHR understands the unique challenges and opportunities that come with the use of web sources. Editors will make recommendations for citations of missing content on a case by case basis, but numerous references to web sources with broken links or missing content may result in either a rejection or a ‘revise and resubmit.’
Content footnotes are acceptable, but should be used in moderation. Content footnotes should be listed and grouped with other footnotes. If a footnote includes both content and a citation, give the content first, ending with a period and followed by the citation.
All superscripts for footnotes should appear at the end of the sentence, unless separate sources are being cited within the same sentence. This is the only instance when a footnote may appear within a sentence.
The bibliography should be divided between primary and secondary sources. Each section should be listed alphabetically. Each entry should follow the note-bibliography format of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th Edition).
For multiple works by the same author, include the author’s full name for each entry.
For edited volumes, cite the volume as a whole if more than one work is cited in the footnotes, but cite the specific work if only one work is being cited in the footnotes.
As with the footnotes, web sources should include as much information as possible. See the footnotes section for details.
Any figures, illustrations, tables, or photographs must contain proper copyright permission for use. Securing permission is the sole responsibility of the author, and the VTUHR requires documentation of permission for work protected under copyright law. The managing editors will provide authors with the necessary forms during the revision process once an article has been accepted. If permission is not obtained, the VTUHR will omit the copyrighted material and may request additional revisions as deemed necessary to insure the coherence and clarity of the paper. For example, if a paper analyzes a copyrighted image which cannot be included, the editors may request the author to add a detailed description of the image in lieu of the image itself.
Recommended Sources on Chicago Style:
The Purdue Owl: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/chicago_manual_of_style_17th_edition.html
The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition: ISBN-10: 022628705X
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations 9th Edition: ISBN-10: 022643057X
All submissions are reviewed by the undergraduate editorial board. Our editors utilize a single-blind review process and employee a standard rubric to evaluate submissions. The editorial board typically meets once a month during the school year (August-April), so a submitter can expect to receive a decision within a month of submitting their article. Articles submitted during the summer months (May-August) can expect to receive a decision early in the fall. The Review accepts submissions on a rolling basis. The Review is typically published annually every spring; when an article is published will vary based on the number of accepted submissions during the year.
The editorial board may return the following decisions:
Reject: Articles that fail to meet the basic requirements will be rejected outright with an explanation for why the editors did not feel that the article was appropriate for the Review.
Revise and Resubmit: Most articles will receive a decision of Revise and Resubmit. The Review operates much like any academic journal in that it is dedicated to publishing the best possible product. A 'revise and resubmit' decision is meant to encourage our authors to go back and hone their work so that the final product can be something they are truly proud of. Submitters are given detailed instructions on how they can improve their articles and are encouraged to consider making revisions and resubmitting their article to the Review. Submitters are welcome to contact the managing editors to seek more information about how they can improve their article.
Accept with Revisions: Some articles will be accepted on the condition that the author make specific revisions to improve their article. The editorial board and managing editors will provide clear instructions on the necessary revisions and will work closely with the submitter to ensure that the article is of the highest quality.
Accept: Some articles will be accepted outright. However, the submitter will be expected to cooperate with the copyediting process as the editors fine-tune the paper to ensure that it is free of errors.
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
Figures are all cited in the main text and are uploaded as supplementary files. Figures/images have a resolution of at least 150dpi (300dpi or above preferred). The files are in one of the following formats: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS (to maximise quality, the original source file is preferred).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms. If a submission is rejected or withdrawn prior to publication, all rights return to the author(s):
Submitting to the journal implicitly confirms that all named authors and rights holders have agreed to the above terms of publication. It is the submitting author's responsibility to ensure all authors and relevant institutional bodies have given their agreement at the point of submission.
Note: some institutions require authors to seek written approval in relation to the terms of publication. Should this be required, authors can request a separate licence agreement document from the editorial team (e.g. authors who are Crown employees).