Greetings and welcome to the third issue of the Virginia Tech Undergraduate Historical Review. For the past three years, the Review has provided a publishing outlet for undergraduates at Virginia Tech. As editors, we seek to help students develop their historical research in order to take part in ongoing scholarly conversations about the past. The Review offers students a chance to develop their skills outside of the classroom.

Our editorial staff takes pride in the review process. We graduate managing editors would be lost without our faculty editor as well as the seven undergraduate editors on the board. All of our submissions are reviewed by two undergraduate editors, and then the entire staff considers the papers for publication. After staff meetings we take time to speak with the authors about how to improve their papers whether they are accepted for publication or not. We aim to help writers develop their papers further by paying special attention to structure, clarity, grammar, sources, historiography, and an original argument. Through this peer review approach, our staff and contributors actively engage in the research and publication process.

This year we have selected five articles for publication. The first article, by Victoria Heath, traces the development of women’s activism and the right to drive in Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War through today. Devin Serlin’s submission transports the reader to sixteenth-century Venice to explore the factors behind European victory in the Battle of Lepanto. The political machinations behind the creation of the Federal Reserve are the subject of Adam Alcorn’s article, followed by Will Gipe’s discussion of the 1989 Pittston coal strike in southwest Virginia and its place in regional memory. Grace Hemmingson rounds out this issue with her analysis of the United States Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment.

We hope you enjoy this issue of the Virginia Tech Undergraduate Historical Review. We are excited to continue highlighting undergraduate historical research at Virginia Tech. We would like to thank Virginia Tech’s History Department, our esteemed faculty editor Dr. Robert Stephens, the undergraduate editorial board, and all the authors who submitted their papers for publication. Our two undergraduate design editors, Andrea Ledesma and Nick Swedberg, have created a stunning layout and cover for this year’s issue. We owe you two many thanks. Most of all, we thank you, the reader, for supporting this journal and undergraduate historical research!

Managing Editors